Ultrashort pulsed lasers have been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for nano-structuring in semiconductors, metals, dielectrics, polymers, and tissues. Because of the strong linear absorption in most materials, UV-laser based systems provide only surface patterning. In contrast, femt-O-cut offers real three-dimensional processing even in depths of more than 100 μm with submicron cut width. By multiphoton ionisation in the focal region, cut sizes below the diffraction limit can be achieved. The system can be used for direct writing of nanoscale structures in NIR-transparent materials and opens a wide field of industrial and medical as well as scientific applications. Nanoscale structuring by femtosecond laser pulses is used for waveguide writing, photomask fabrication and to improve the surface quality of certain components. Further, drilling of microscopic holes into a variety of materials is possible. The interaction of ultrashort pulsed lasers with biological materials has been found to be strongly limited to the focal volume minimising the harm to nearby tissue regions. It is therefore possible to disconnect mutant tissue from living cells. The high resolution of femt-O-cut enables knocking-out of single organelles without any visible deleterious effect. With its extremely localised working area femt-O-cut has the potential to be a powerful tool for DNA manipulation. It can be used for optical deactivation of certain genomic regions in chromosomes. Femtosecond laser pulses have been shown to be applicable for sectioning of human chromosomes and for highly localised gene and molecule transfer.
Nanosurgery in ocular tissue: Creation of corneal flap